1949). In academia, until recently, scientists were driven by the 'publish or perish' ethos: scientists were rewarded for producing original scientific work, published in refereed academic journals. Clark, N. (1985), The Political Economy of Science and Technology. Index Aboriginal land rights, 188 abortion, 97 academic science Australia, 17, 20-2, 32 definition and description, 11, 17-20, 28-30, 32-3, 36, 160, 174-5 funding, 16, 20, 73-4, 183, 187 Japan,147, 150 misconduct, 22, 71-4, 75, 79, 102 'publish or perish' system, 18-19, 20-3, 36,72-3,174 Sweden,151,153 Academies of Science, 8, 19, 202 ACAST (Advisory Committee on the Application of Science and Technology to Development), 211-12 accountability, see responsibility Africa, 161-2, 206-7, 209, 216, 226 agriculture Australia, 136-44, 146, 155, 201, 235 economic growth, 112, 117-18, 151, 159 global future, 175, 240, 243, 245 Soviet, 87 Third World, 164, 206, 210, 213-15, 222, 224, 226, 228-9 see also food production alkali industry, 11, 33, 132-5, 155, 176 Allen, T.J., 27 alternative technologies, see appropriate technology animal experimentation, 64, 69-71, 78, 103 Antarctica, 31, 37, 90, 186, 237 applied science Australia, 25-6, 137, 145, 155, 201-2 definition, 6, 32, 51-2 industrial R&D, 25-6, 37, 133, 159, 175 Industrial Revolution, 112, 115, 126-9, 130, 132 manufacturing, 133, 147, 150, 154 Third World, 211 useful knowledge, 8, 11, 23, 25, 29, 32 appropriate technology, 12, 216-23, 227-8 Arkwright, Sir Richard, 123-4, 126, 128, 170 arms race, see Cold War Asia-Pacific region economic growth, 24, 135, 146, 161-4, 177-8,197, 219-21, 226, 252 less-developed countries, 206-10, 212, 214-15, 217-20, 246-7 see also China; Japan; South Asia; South Korea ASTEC, see Australian Science and Technology Council astronomy, 195, 202, 233 atomic bomb, see Manhattan Project Auckland, see National Women's Hospital case Australia academic science, 17, 20-2, 32 economic role of science and technology, 11, 13, 135-46, 148-50, 155-6, 162, 207-8, 213 expenditure on science and technology, 3, 15-17, 36, 153, 201, 235-6, 252 future, 233, 235-6, 239, 241, 248-9, 251-3 government funding, 20, 25, 29, 140-1, 145-6, 182, 199-202 government science, 16-17, 31-2, 37, 137, 139, 146, 198 268 INDEX industrial R&D, 16, 23-6, 29, 172-3, 176, 201 military R&D, 16, 26, 36, 140-1 public policy, 15-17, 146, 181-2, 185, 187-93, 196-202, 252; see also Australian Science and Technology Council; Commission for the Future research funds, 20; see also Australian scientific activity, 15-17 Australian Academy of Science, 202 Australian National Technology Strategy, 198-9 Australian Research Council, 20 Australian Research Grants Committee, 182 Australian Science and Technology Council (ASTEC), 23, 25, 37, 146, 182-3, 200-1, 204, 236 authority, attitudes towards, 68, 78 Bacon, Francis, 7-8 Baltimore, David, 102 basic research, 201-4, 211-12, 222, 250 benefits versus risks, 95-6 Bernal, J. D., 8-10 Bethe, Hans, 51 BHP, 27, 140,197 Big Bang theory, 4, 86, 105 bio-diversity, 224, 240, 249 biogas plants, 217-18, 228 biological control, 139 biological sciences, 202—3, 260 biotechnology, 175, 221-2, 224 Blackett,RM.S.,92,211,213 brain drain, 213, 223 Bretton Woods agreement, 219 British Empire, 6, 135, 209, 212, 227 Australia as part, 24, 135-8, 142, 144, 155,188 see also United Kingdom Brown, Lester, 247 Brundtland, Gro Harlem, 224 Bush, Vannevar, 9, 13 Button, John, 145 Buxtun, Peter, 60, 62 Canada, 137,189, 213, 226 cane toad, 139 capital economics, 164-5, 167,168-70,195, 197-200, 210 Industrial Revolution, 116-18, 123-4 Third World, 213, 216, 218, 220, 226, 228, 245 Cardwell, D., 119,123,126,128-30 cars, see motor vehicle industry 269 Cartwright, Silvia (Royal Commissioner), 63,100-1 cause and responsibility, 48-50 cervical cancer scandal, see National Women's Hospital case chemical and biological weapons, 33, 35 chemical industry, see alkali industry Chernobyl disaster (1986), 10, 95 China ancient technology, 6 economy, 161-2 science and technology in development, 12, 208, 210, 217, 223, 226, 228 World War I, 148 World War II, 58, 78 choice collective choice, 183-6 freedom, 47-8, 50, 101 social and economic aspects, 235—6 Clark, Norman, 159, 161, 169-70, 176, 178 climate change, 239-41, 247 Club of Rome, 243, 245-7 coal, 113, 124-5,137, 143, 152-3, 169 codes of conduct, 68-9, 76-7, 78, 80-2 cold fusion, 84 Cold War, 9, 35-6, 55 Cole, Stephen, 20, 85-7 Collins, Harry, 84 commercialisation, 183 Commission for the Future, 233, 241, 252 Commission on Sustainable Development, 225 Committee on Science and Technology in Developing Countries (ICSU), 211 Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, s^CSIRO community, scientific, 15-39, 79 computers R&D, 26-7, 29, 34, 38, 127, 153, 169, 173-5,200,221,226 social and economic impacts, 4, 159, 161, 232 Coney, Sandra, and Bunkle, Phillida, 63, 99-102,105 confidentiality, 75—6 conflict, see controversies consequentialism, 55, 64-5; see also utilitarianism consumption, see demand and supply continental drift, 4, 11, 83, 87, 88-94, 105 contractarianism, 65 controversies, 11, 71, 83-107 continental drift, 4,11, 83, 87, 88-94, 105 closure, 87-8, 91, 93-4 scientific, 83-7,105 270 INDEX controversies, contd technical, 94-8, 105 Co-operative Research Centres, 146, 202 copper, 238 core and frontier knowledge, 20, 85-7, 91, 94 Cotgrove, Steven, and Box, Stephen, 27-8 cotton manufacture, 115-17, 118-24, 126, 128,132, 169 craft, 6, 159-60,165-6 creation science, 86, 97, 105 Crick, Francis, 21 CSIRO, 17, 31-2, 137, 139, 146 Cuba, 222 cultural factors, 160, 207-8, 217, 226 Curie, J. H., 143 Darseejohn, 72 Darwin, Charles, 4, 86, 140, 160; see also evolution Davies, Paul, 150 defence science, see military science and technology demand and supply, 133, 142, 150, 161, 174-6, 247 Industrial Revolution, 116-18, 124 Third World, 218, 223, 225 demographic change, see population deontology, 64-5, 70, 78 dependency, 215, 220-2 Depression of 1930s, 143-4, 168, 178 developing countries, see Third World development definition, 207-9 global future, 245-6, 248, 252, 254 Third World, 209-11, 213, 215, 217, 219, 221-2, 225, 228-9 see also economic growth; sustainable development drugs, see pharmaceuticals Earth Summit, 224-5, 227 ecology, 160-1, 203, 217, 236, 238-41, 244, 248-50 economic cycles, 168-9, 171, 177, 219 economic growth Australia, 146 definition, 112-15, 160-1 factors, 162-4 globalisation and future trends, 227, 232, 234-9, 245, 251-4 innovation and decline, 167, 168-71, 172 limits to, 243-6, 248-9 Industrial Revolution, 111, 112-15, 117, 120-2, 124, 126, 129-30 public policy, 189, 192, 200 Third World, 160-4, 177-8, 207-8, 212, 217,219,223,225,239 see also development economics, 11-12, 25, 116, 132-60, 210 recent perspectives, 171-2 science and technology policy, 182, 195-202 theory, 164-8 see also market economics; national economies education and training, 212-13 efficiency versus equity, 94—5, 101 Einstein, A., 40, 42-3, 49-51, 86-7 Eisenhower, Dwight, 248 electric shock experiments (Milgram), 66-9, 76, 78 energy efficiency, 223-5, 235, 237-40, 247, 251-3 Enigma codes, 34 entrepreneurs, 140, 151-3, 165, 170-4 Industrial Revolution, 116, 118, 123 environment, 12-13 global future, 160-1, 235-7, 238-40, 241,244-5,247-8,251,254 history, 133, 156 public policy, 10, 31, 188, 190-4 Third World, 208, 217, 223-7 equity, 94-5, 101, 181, 187, 218, 247 ethics, 11, 51, 54-5, 56-82, 100-2, 104, 183 global, 240, 246 see also responsibility ethics committees, 69, 71, 100 Europe economy, 197-8, 226, 252 Industrial Revolution, 119, 132-4 relations with Third World, 213, 222 research spending, 3, 36, 202 science academies, 8 see also France; Germany; OECD; Russia and Eastern Europe; Sweden; UK evidence, 6, 84-7, 91, 93-4, 102, 104 evolution, 86, 97, 105 expenditure on science and technology academic science, 16, 20, 73-4, 183, 187 Australia, 3, 15-17, 36, 145-6, 153, 177, 201-2, 235-6, 249, 252 governments, see government funding and support industrial R&D, 16, 23-7, 132, 201 military R&D, 36 OECD countries, 3, 36, 153 research, 182-3, 202, 235-6 experimentation, see animal experimentation; evidence; human experimentation INDEX exports, see trade factories, see manufacturing Felig, Philip, 73 feminism, see gender fertilisers, 241, 217-18, 228, 246 Feynman, Richard, 51 findings, see evidence fisheries, 185-6 food production, 136, 155, 159, 243, 245, 247 forecasting, 85-7, 233-5, 243-7 forests, 186, 238, 241 Framework Convention on Climate Change, 239 France, 34, 117-18, 120, 124, 133, 209, 226-7 Franklin River case, 188 fraud, 22, 72, 73-4, 79, 102 freedom, 46-8, 96-7, 101 Freeman, Chris, 168, 170, 173-4, 177 Frisch, Otto, 43-4, 47, 50 'frontier' knowledge (Cole), 20, 85-7, 91,94 funding, see expenditure on science and technology future, 12, 232-56 GalbraithJ. (ed.) Noyce, P. (1989), personal communication. This sort of responsibility is known as moral responsibility. One of the aspects we know of is discovering the evolution of man. This is not surprising since the the two streams of science has constantly been first, the search for the truth in the universe and Second, to make our life easier and safer. The past sweep of political events shows how difficult that can be. There was, of course, much more than this to the development of the newly industrialising countries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The consequences of the acts are not of interest, only the fact that God has spoken about them. believe that this new type of knowledge will eventually absorb the older sort. After each experiment, the subjects were carefully debriefed. The Tuskegee project The story of the Tuskegee project is a peacetime horror story. Indeed, it is common for such change to lead to new job opportunities. Popper, Karl R., 'A Note on Berkeley as a Precursor to Mach and Einstein', British fournal for the Philosophy of Science, 4, 1954. Osborne, J. The common was just large enough to support thirty cows, so the overall arrangement was stable. [Meadows et al. The John J. Reilly Center “explores conceptual, ethical and policy issues where science and technology intersect with society from different disciplinary perspectives.” Its goal is “to promote the advancement of science and technology for the common good and demonstrate the integral role of the humanities in science and technology.” Its major ally, France, had been rapidly defeated, and the German air force, the Luftwaffe, now attacked Britain to bring about its surrender. Yes, science and technology by themselves will not solve the problems of society and nature. This ideal raises difficulties. In many instances APPENDIXES 265 there is one volume per year, so it is not strictly necessary to have both year and volume number. More disturbing are cases such as those of John Spector and John Darsee (Broad and Wade 1985:63, 13). This yielded soda, but wasted ammonia by producing it as ammonium chloride. Can the increasing global demand for the products of advanced industrial society be satisfied without provoking an environmental 224 IN THE WIDER SOCIETY catastrophe? One, Vijay Soman, was a young researcher, but the other, Philip Felig, was a professor at Yale University Medical School, and a major scientist. Freeman et al. Jones, B. O. Much of this inventiveness proceeded with minimal science, as did a considerable amount of innovation in crop improvement. Biogas technology has been widely introduced in both India and China, but with very different social impacts. The Tuskegee study now appears in a new, and much more malignant, light. There are exceptions to this. At no time was there ever any consideration of compromise between the fixists and the drifters. Instead of, say, five machines, one hundred workers and one workshop, an entrepreneur might decide to invest infivemore machines, hire another hundred workers and rent an additional workshop. Instead, in hundreds of cases, the stimulus was the recognition of a costly problem to be solved or a potentially profitable opportunity to be seized. Science and technology policy: economic dimensions One key element of science and technology policy, as discussed earlier, is its impact on the economy. If the world's people decide to strive for this second outcome rather than the first, the sooner they begin working to attain it, the greater will be their chances of success. As the quote from Maxwell suggests, we will not be concentrating upon facts and figures, but upon the basic organisation of science, and its particular 'go', the way it works. The transformation of the alkali industry convinced virtually everyone that science could be important in the world of practical affairs, and should be supported financially. Its main aim was to ensure that all elected MPs should represent the same number of people. Coney was cross-examined for four days. De Solla Price (1965) showed that multiple authorship is becoming more common in many sciences, and papers with dozens of authors are not unknown (Ziman 1976). Surprisingly, despite the obvious importance of the question, the continental drift debate was purely a scientific one. (1976), The Force of Knowledge. [Meadows et al. Members of a government party rarely vote against their own leaders: it is not a way to become identified as a suitable candidate for higher office. ), Science, Technology and Development. He was credited by law with the invention of the water-frame, a spinning machine, in 1767, just after the appearance of the jenny. Ronnie Kray might not have been a rational killer, but he did it voluntarily. The world has been horrified by a series of scandals involving prescribed drugs which have had appalling side-effects. Or that the critical mass of U-235 was very small. Now science is often carried out by large teams, with many technical assistants and vast sums of money. This saves writing everything out again, but take care that you have not previously cited two works by the same author. The fundamental contribution of STS is to look at the human-built world as an integrated … Because of the unusual beliefs of some doctors, and the weak system of ethical control, women who expected high-quality treatment were in fact being treated as guinea-pigs, without being told about it. NEW ZEALAND .mutton, butter t cheese gum, wheal, oats MaJiofany, cedar, logwood, chicle. (1982), Sleepers, Wake! For example, a provision to subsidise production of power alcohol from plant material in Australia in the 1990s resulted from a deal the Labor government of the day made with a minor party, the Democrats, in return for support of legislation. They began with an article written by Alfred Wegener in 1912, and the issue was not settled until about 1966, when the modern theory of plate tectonics won near-universal assent. Such developments were very important for some countries, such as India, which wanted to encourage the development of science-based industries as a way of catching-up with the industrialised countries. Is unsatisfactory and the rotary hoe ( Ingpen 1982 ), the R D. And provide advice to the variety of real world of practical Politics 's... Only mixed success in journal publication silent about its questionable ethical aspects price-elastic limit! Be awarded sector in Australia 's trade History on freezing people to turn their abilities to help in about! 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